The descendants of Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj Saba’ al-dujail bin Imam Ali al-Hadi al-Naqi al-Askari a.s.
The Sadat al-Baaj (السادة البعاج) and Sadat al-Bukhari al-Rizavi al-Baaj (السادة البخاري الرضوي البعاج) or Sadat Al-Bukhari Sayyidatai (السادة البخاري سيداتاي) are sayyids with the family names or with the titles «Al-Baaj», «Al-Naqi», «Al-Askari» «Al-Bukhari», «Al-Rizavi», «Al-Musawi» who are descent from Muhammad s.a.w. through the lineage of the Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj Saba’al-dujail bin imam Ali al-Hadi a.s. from countries of the Middle East, Iraq, Iran, India, Pakistan and Central Asia.
Sayyid Imam Muhammad al-Askari bin Imam Ali al-Hadi al-Naqi bin Imam Muhammad al-Taqi bin Imam Ali al-Riza bin Imam Musa al-Kazim bin Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq bin Imam Muhammad al-Baqir bin Imam Ali Zayn al-Abidin bin Imam Hussain bin Imam Ali bin Abu Talib a.s. — was the elder son of Imam Ali al-Hadi and the brother of Imam Hasan al-Askari, the 10th and 11th Imams. He was born in a village called Sarya or Sariya, Sarba in Madinah around the year 228 hijri year. and the village of Sarya or Sariya was founded by his grandfather Imam Musa al-Kazim a.s. Sayyid Muhammad was nicknamed »Al-Askari», this title is borrowed from the title of his father Imam Ali al-Hadi, who with his family was imprisoned for a long time, actually in captivity, at a military base called al-Askari near Samarra of the Abbasid Caliphate. Another title »Saba’ al-Dujail» because there was a «Lion» protecting its visitors from thieves and bandits. Among other his nicknames: »Saba’ al-Jazirah», »Al-Baaj», »Al-Burhan», »Abu al-Sharara», »Abu al-Abbas» and others.
When Sayyid Muhammad’s father Imam Ali al Hadi left the city Madinah for Samarra, he left his son Sayyid Muhammad in Madinah as a child, and in the year 242 hijri year, 856 CE, Sayyid Muhammad went to Hajj, then joined his father from Makkah Al-Mukarramah and stayed with him in Samarra at the Abbasid military base (hence his title «Al-Askari», translated «Military») for a long period of time. He died on 28 or 29 Jumada al-Thani in the year 252 hijri year, 866 CE, at the age of twenty-four. The cause of his illness is not known, and it was said that he was given a poison by the Abbasid Empire. Those who surrounded his father and thought, like others, that his son Sayyid Muhammad was the Imam after him, or that what he suffered was a sudden disease and some mentioned the first possibility.
His tomb was constructed between Samarra and Kazimiya, about 93 km. north of Baghdad in Balad, Iraq. The Muhammadite Shias believed that the Awaited Imam Mahdi was Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi, who was put into occultation (Ghaybah) by the rule of Allah as the Abbasids wanted him killed in intent to remove the Imamat from existence, he reappeared a few times for short period of times and went back in to the large occultation (Ghaybah al-Kubra). Sayyid Imam Muhammad al-Askari and his brother Imam Hasan al-Askari’s mother, as in the case of most of the Twelve Imams, was a slave girl who was honored after bearing children with the title »umm walad» (mother of offspring). Her given name was Hadith, though some say she was called «Susan», «Ghazala», «Salil», or «Haribta». They had other brothers from others wives of his father Imam Ali al Hadi a.s. Among them was Ja’far al-Tawwab who was also mentioned as «Ja’far al-Kazzab», «Ja’far al-Zaki» or «Jaffar-al-Sani». His other brother was Husayn. Sayyida Hadith, also called: Salil. She was the mother of Muhammad al-Askari and his younger brother Hasan al-Askari and it was narrated that Imam Ali al Hadi said about her: “Salil — which is her name — is free from pests, abominations, and impurities”.
The descendants of Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj Saba’al-dujail, they also live in Khoy, Khaansar, Isfahan, Salmas, Merv (located in Turkmenistan), Bukhara and Samarkand which is located in Uzbekistan and as well as in Pakistan and India. However, the title «Sadat al-Bukhari al-Rizavi» prevailed over his descendants from Bukhara and Samarkand region, the title «Sadat al-Naqvi» prevailed over descendants from Pakistan and India, referring to their grandfather, Imam Ali al-Hadi, nicknamed al-Naqi, al-Askari, and al-Rizavi in relation of their ancestor Imam Ali al-Riza, al-Musavi in relation to their grandfather, Imam Musa al-Kazim a.s. In Iraq and Khuzestan, they were famous named «Al-Baaj». The Sadat Al-Baaj lived in Iraq since ancient times and some of them also resided in Samarra. Some of them migrated to Iran and others migrated to territory to Central Asia and Pakistan. This is mentioned in many genealogy books, such as genealogist al-Nawbahti who is from the third century AH stipulates the descendants of Sayyid Muhammad al-Baaj and that he has an established, well-known legacy and including al-Qummi, who is from the third century AH, al-Shahristani in his book «Al-Milal waal-Nahl», who is from the fourth century AH, the genealogist al-nasaba Ibn Khotel in «The heart of the genealogy» book, who died 565 AH, he mentioned Sadat al-Baaj in Merv Central Asia, and the genealogist al-nasaba of Al-Samarqandi, who died in 996, in his book «Tuhfat al-Talib», he mentioned Imam Ali al-Hadi’s three sons: Sayyid Muhammad, Sayyid Hasan and Sayyid Ja’far.
There are differing opinions about the number of sons of Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj Saba’ al-dujail a.s. The statement of six or more sons was made by Al-Najafi in his book “Bahr al-Ansab” and Dhamin ibn Shadgum, in his book “Tuhfat al-Azhar”, who lists:
- Sayyid Ja’far
- Sayyid Ali also known as Sultan Saodat Sayyid Ali Akbar (other nicknames (laqab) al-Akbar, al-Asghar, al-Amir, at-Taqi, al-Muttaqi).
- Sayyid Husayn
- Sayyid Ahmad
- Sayyid Abu Talib Muhammad
- Sayyid Iskandar
These names have been referenced in many historical genealogy (al-Ansab) books, such as al-Najafi «Bahr al-Ansab», «Tuhfat al-Azhar», Kharz ad-din, book «Markat al-Maarif», Badawi, Saba’ al-Jazeera, book «Saba’ al-Dujail» and others. These children of Sayyid Muhammad al-Askari bin Imam Ali Hadi a.s. are considered the ancestors of many sayyid families from the countries of Middle East, Central Asia, India and Pakistan etc.
The genealogist al-nasaba Sayyid Dhamin bin Shadgum who died 1090, in his book «Tuhfat al-Azhar» and al-Najafi “Bahr al-Ansab” and others genealogies are mentioned the children of Sayyid Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj:
1) Sayyid Ja’far (by which famous nickname (laqab) of his father — Abu Ja’far Muhammad, Ibn Shadgum in his book «Tuhfat al-Azhar» mentioned his second nickname — Abu Ali Muhammad) — Ibn al-Taqtaki, who died 709 AH and the genealogist Sayyid Mahdi Al-Raja’i in his book «Al-Muqa’quboon» part-2, page-53, are mentioned about his descendants and wrote that «he has offspring in Pakistan and they have documented ancient trees manuscripts and well-known shrines of their righteous ancestors that confirm what they have proven of their noble lineages and they are famous Sadats there in relation to their grandfather Imam Ali Al-Hadi Al-Naqi» a.s.
2) Sayyid Ali also known with nicknames (al-Akbar, al-Asghar, al-Amir, at-Taqi, al-Muttaqi, Sultan-Sadat) Sayyid Ali — According to many genealogical sources and to the conclusion of many historians he was the son of Sayyid imam Muhammad who is considered the elder brother of imam Hasan al-Askari a.s. According to the genealogical sources and shajra manuscripts, from his descendant named Naqib Sayyid Muhammad Husayn ibn Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid Ali ibn Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj ibn Imam Ali al-Hadi is divided into two branches lineages from his two sons named Sayyid Ali (ancestor of Sayyid Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Bukhari, great-grandfather of «Sadat al-Baaj» of Iraq and Iran) and Sayyid Ahmad, nicknamed (laqab) Sayyid Ata Bulaqi (ancestor of «Sadat al-Bukhari Sayyidatai» in Bukhara, Samarkand region and Central Asia). The genealogy lineage of Sheikh Sayyid Khwaja Samandar Muhammad ibn Baqi al-Termizi — the famous sheikh and poet, writer and scholar, author of «Dastur al-Mulk» (Guide to Kings) (XVII сentury), goes back to Sultan Sadat Al-Amir Sayyid Ali Akbar, it is mentioned in his history book called «Dastur al-Mulk». The 15th century famous poet, musicologist, scholar of language and other sciences Sahib Balkhi Sharifi wrote about the Sayyids of Termiz. His one of the poems begins with the name of Sultan Saadat (Sultan of Sayyids), i.e. the praise of Al-Amir Sayyid Ali Akbar al-Termizi. Therefore, Sultan Sadat (Sodot) Sayyid Ali bin Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj is the «Sultan (leader) of Sayyids» and the owner (historians suggest that Sayyid Ali Akbar’s burial place is located in the main mausoleum Sultan Saodat memorial complex) «Sultan Saodat» Mausoleum (erected 9-15 centuries) in Termez city and Sultan Sadat is Sayyid Ali Akbar, which is also mentioned with the nickname (kunyat) Sayyid Abu Muhammad who presumably died at the end of the 9th century or early 10th century in Termez. Many tombs and nameless graves of more than a thousand sayyids are located in the «Sultan Saodat» memorial complex and its territory in Termez. And mentioned that Sayyid Ali’s descendants lived in the Bukhara and Samarkand regions. One of his famous al-Bukhari descendants was Sayyid Shamsuddin Muhammad Amir Sultan al-Bukhari.
The scholar Dhamin ibn Shadgum in his book «Tuhfat al-Azhar», who died in 1090, he mentioned that Sayyid Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Bukhari was a great scholar, known as Amir Sultan al-Bukhari, because he was from Bukhara and his descendants were also called al-Bukhari and Sayyid Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Bukhari was the ancestor of the Al-Baaj family in Iraq and Khuzestan Iran too. This was stipulated by the great scholar Sayyid Hassan Al-Baraqi, who died in 1332 AH, in his commentary on «Tuhfat al-Azhar» by Ibn Shadgum, »Sayyid Muhammad is the son of Imam Ali al-Hadi peace be upon him, from him Sayyid Shams al-Din al-Bukhari and he has a dynasty spread in the outskirts of Iraq, and from his children Sayyid Ala ad-Din Ibrahim, and Sayyid Ibrahim succeeded Sayyid Ali, and Sayyid Ali succeeded Sayyid Yusuf, and Sayyid Yusuf succeeded Sayyid Hamza, and Sayyid Hamza succeeded Sayyid Muhammad al-Baaj (the second Muhammad) and he succeeded Sayyid Al-Mu’ayyad Billah Yahya, and he was one of the great Sadats and notables of Iraq in the 11th century, and Sayyid Yahya succeeded Sayyid Muhammad, and Sayyid Muhammad succeeded Sayyid Ibrahim and Sayyid Isa, and Sayyid Ibrahim is the grandfather of the Al-Baaj family in Iraq and elsewhere…. The scholar Dr. Sayyid Walid Al-Baaj has verified the lineage of descendants of Sayyid Muhammad al-Baaj and wrote a book about his descendants in 1999, that includes dozens of solid sources that many genealogists neglected, with many facts and old documents that talk about Sayyid Muhammad Al-Baaj and his descendants and their honorable shrines.
3) Sayyid Ahmad — he was auliya, belongs to the Sadats who are famous among the descendants al-Rizavi in Khansar, Iran, as well as among them in Pakistan who are famous named the Sadat al-Naqvi. Sayyid Ahmed bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj has a famous shrine mausoleum at Khansar and this shrine is visited by many pilgrims. Among his descendants, Imamzadeh Sayyid Mahmud bin Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Ahmad bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Askari al-Baaj bin Imam Ali al-Hadi al-Naqi, has a large shrine and a well-known mausoleum in Khoy.
4) Sayyid Hussain — his descendants live in Merv (now in the territory of Turkmenistan), this is mentioned in the book «Al-Muqa’quboon» part-2, page-53 of scholar al-nasaba Sayyid Mahdi Al-Rajai, he quoted from Ibn Khotel, who died in 565 AH, in his genealogy Al-Ansab book.
5) Sayyid Abu Talib Muhammad — his descendants live in Pakistan, they are called «Sadat al-Naqvi» in honor of their ancestor Imam Ali al-Hadi by his nicknames — al-Naqi, al-Askari, al-Zaki, al-Fattah, al-Murtaza and others. The tribe Al-Baqarah trace their paternal lineage to Sayyid Abu Talib Muhammad ibn Sayyid Muhammad al-Askari Saba’ al-dujail bin imam Ali al-Hadi a.s..
6) Sayyid Iskandar — his descendants live in countries of Middle East, Pakistan and in other countries.